Letter from Civil Society Organisations on Improving current regulation and implementing a robust regulatory mechanism for GM crops to ensure biosafety

New Delhi

2nd January 2013


Ms. Jayanti Natarajan
Minister for State for Environment & Forests (Independent Charge)
Paryavaran Bhavan, CGO Complex,
Lodi Estate, New Delhi.

Dear Madam,

Re: Improving current regulation and implementing a robust regulatory mechanism for GM crops to ensure biosafety

Greetings! And Happy New Year Wishes !

This is with regard to the first report of the Technical Expert Committee (TEC) in the Supreme Court PIL on GMOs. We are deeply dismayed that the Ministry of Environment & Forests has been reported to have not backed the recommendations of a Committee of independent experts (whose expertise in safety assessment is invaluable) jointly constituted by itself and the petitioner of the PIL, Ms. Aruna Rodrigues. The matter in question is the impact on biosafety from the deployment of modern biotechnological tools like transgenics.

Your Ministry, which has the authority and responsibility to ensure biosafety and protect biodiversity, instead of taking the lead in this matter, appears to have abdicated its responsibility and let other departments and Ministries, whose role is to promote biotechnology, to seize the initiative with regard to this critical issue under your purview. This is apparent from the affidavit filed by the Ministry of Agriculture’s Joint Secretary (Seeds), on behalf of Union of India. This is indeed unfortunate and unacceptable.

• Prior to the SC TEC report, the Parliamentary Standing Committee (PSC) on Agriculture tabled its report on GM crops on August 9th, 2012. It is not a coincidence that both these reports have raised similar concerns. In addition to looking at problems with open air field trials, the TEC report has raised the issue of conflict of interest within the regulator, the problems with Bt food crops, the threats from HT crops in the Indian context and the fundamental requirement of need assessment for GM products/crops before they are introduced into the environment.

• Open air field trials of untested and unknown organisms is indeed a problem, given that Genetic Engineering is an imprecise, irreversible and uncontrollable living technology. Over and above the challenge of this living technology, the regulatory regime in the country has proven itself incapable and apathetic towards protection of biosafety during such trials. Numerous instances of violations are in the notice of your Ministry and the Supreme Court, starting from the way Bt cotton began to be cultivated in this country before formal regulatory approval was granted.

• Lack of institutional mechanisms for monitoring, violations of rules, instances of contamination, lack of sufficient protocols and their oversight, use of illegal GMOs, lack of a liability regime and absence of any policy directives before entertaining transgenic applications are among the glaring lacunae afflicting the regulation of GM crops, right from the time field trials were first allowed within the country. There is an overall acknowledgement about the need for improvement on the regulatory front, including by the Chairperson of GEAC, in various fora.

• To that extent, as the only Ministry holding the regulatory mandate, it is only expected that the MoEF will do its best to make the regulatory regime robust, credible, independent of conflict of interest and adopt a precautionary approach as it has done in the case of Bt brinjal. It is therefore quite unexpected that this did not happen on November 9th 2012, during the last hearing of the Supreme Court in the matter.

• The PSC report and the TEC’s first report come at a critical juncture. In 2011 and 2012 alone, we brought to your notice several glaring violations related to biosafety during open-air field trials. No satisfactory response was forthcoming from the regulators.

• The facetious arguments being bandied about by GM crop promoters about GM crops being essential to ensure food security is merely unscientific scare-mongering and that should not deter the Ministry from taking up the all-important task of putting in place a robust regulatory mechanism. As you would agree with us, food security is more than just production of more food, as the paradox of overflowing godowns/rotting food grains and growing hunger in India shows. Further, even on the supply side, productivity improvements can be achieved through many means other than GMOs.

• We would like to bring to your notice that GM crops, particularly BT and HT crops, are not meant to increase yield. This has been unequivocally established time and again in the United States, the largest purveyor of GM crops. In the US, only 3-4% of yield increase in Bt corn is being attributed to GM technology by experts, and even this happens in years of high pest infestation. Further, in the case of GM soy, there have been no significant yield improvements despite the high adoption of GM soy. The herbicide-tolerant gene in GM soy provided no yield gains. The engineered gene in GM drought tolerant corn is estimated to increase productivity by only around 1.2%.

• In the Indian context the Director of CICR has said that Bt cotton is not the sole or main cause for yield improvements in cotton and that not even bollworm incidence coming down can be attributed to Bt cotton and therefore, yields cannot be because of Bt technology (relevant extracts attached as an Annexure). Even according to IFPRI, Bt cotton has not significantly contributed to yield increase in cotton in India. Their study shows that, “Bt cotton contributed 19 percent of total yield growth over time, or between 0.3 percent and 0.4 percent per percentage adoption every year since its introduction. Besides Bt cotton, the use of fertilizer and the increased adoption of hybrid seeds appear to have contributed to the yield increase over time.”

• On the other hand, problems abound with GM crops; ‘super weeds’ (glyphosate-resistant or herbicide-resistant weeds) have infested over 15 million acres in the USA. There has been a cumulative increase in pesticide use by about 174 million kg even though GM crops are often promoted as pesticide-reducing crops. The GM industry’s answer to this crisis is new herbicide resistant crops that are designed to use older and even more toxic herbicides. Development of resistance in target insects to GM crops has been demonstrated by several recent studies and reports from the fields also substantiate this.

In response to the oft-repeated claim that GM crops are needed for India’s food security, we would like to point out that global reports of repute like IAASTD , and the statement of the United Nations’ Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food have come to the conclusion that small-holder farming based on agro-ecological principles with good stewardship of land and other resources is the most effective way to eliminate hunger and enhance food security and availability. Techno-fixes like GM crops do not have a role in enhancing food security. This is also evident from the GM crops and traits extensively grown; most of the area under GM crops is commodity crops (cotton, soybean, corn) and they are used for industrial use and animal feed, apart from more than half of America’s corn going into fuelling automobiles!

We understand and recognize the importance of science and technology in nation building; however the basic principle of introducing any risky and controversial technology into a society should be based on a rigorous, independent assessment of its very need. An inherently risky, short-lived and irreversible technology like GM crops, tied up in complicated IPRs seeking to control seed and food chains clearly doesn’t pass muster. On the contrary it is forcing farmers into a treadmill of constant upgradation and higher expenditure – thereby jeopardizing both food security and farmer livelihood stability. Evidence to this effect is emerging from developing countries of South America – food security parameters like calories/person/day are actually declining in countries like Brazil and Paraguay (two countries which have more than 40% of their agriculture under GM crops) while countries like Peru (that have not adopted GM crops) are posting improvements in food security.

On the other hand, ecologically-based farming methods reduce environmental impacts, water, fertilizer and pesticide use. Evidence is coming in from the world over about the efficacy of agro-ecological approaches, the latest is a report from government scientists and researchers in the US who have established that sustainable farming methods can increase yield at zero cost. In India, there is evidence that agro-ecological approaches not only give similar or better yields than conventional technologies but also reduce input costs, use less water and energy, increasing net returns for farmers. The Andhra Pradesh experience of ecological farming on a large scale of 3.5 million acres clearly demonstrates that this does not burden the taxpayer whereas chemical/GM-based farming involves huge subsidies.
India is a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity and you are its Chair for the next two years. The TEC and PSC have invoked the precautionary principle as the guiding principle for their recommendations and pointed to India being a signatory of CBD. In this context it behooves upon the Government of India and particularly the Ministry for Environment & Forests under your leadership to take the lead to set up a model regulatory mechanism for dealing with GM crops.

We, the undersigned, therefore appeal to you to seize this opportunity being provided by the two reports (PSC report and the TEC report) to build a robust, biosafety protection mechanism that would ensure sufficient precaution, due oversight, adequate testing, independent evaluation and stringent monitoring of GM crops with an appropriate liability & redressal regime in place, in addition to need assessment and a holistic impact assessment governing the regulation, going beyond biosafety.

Yours sincerely,

(List of Signatories appended below)

S.No., Name, Affiliation, State
1 Balaji Seshadri Research Associate, Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia —
2 Carmen Miranda Chair, Save Goa Campaign, UK —
3 N. V. Subbarow Research & Education Officer, Consumers Association Of Penang (Cap), Malaysia —
4 Dr. G.V. Ramanjaneyalu Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh
5 Capt. J. Rama Rao I. N. (Retd) Advisor, Forum for Sustainable Development, Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh
6 Jasveen Jairath Save Our Urban Lakes, Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh
7 Dr. K. Babu Rao Convener, Movement for People Centred Development Andhra Pradesh
8 Kirankumar Vissa AID India Andhra Pradesh
9 Kunjam Pandu Dora Convenor, Adivasi Aikya Vedika Andhra Pradesh
10 Madhusudhan Yakshi, Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh
11 Narasimha Reddy Donthi Chetna Society Andhra Pradesh
12 Radha Gopalan Ph.D, Rishi Valley Education Centre, Rishi Valley, Madanapalle, Chittoor Andhra Pradesh
13 Dr. Sagari R. Ramdas Director, Anthra, Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh
14 Dr. A K Yadav RAU, Pusa, Samastipur Bihar
15 Akhilesh Kumar Swadeshi jagran Manch, Patna Bihar
16 Aneel Hegde Kisan Swaraj, Patna Bihar
17 Angina Prasad Farmers Club, West Champaran Bihar
18 Anil Kumar General Secretary, Kisan Majdoor Vikas Sangathan, Jehanabaad Bihar
19 Anita Singh Srikrishna Radhika Mahila Sangathan, Jehanabaad Bihar
20 Bandana Sharma Akanksha Seva Sadan, Muzaffarpur Bihar
21 Dr. D.M.Diwakar IMA, Physician, Patna Bihar
22 Jyoti Kumari Women’s Group, Patna Bihar
23 Kiran Ranjan General Secretary, JDU Bihar, Patna Bihar
24 Kumar Indubhushan National President, Akhil Bhartiya Rashtravaadi Kisan Sangathan, Ara Bihar
25 Lalji Prasad Patna Jila Salahkaar Samiti, Patna Bihar
26 Manoj Kumar Hitakaari krishak Club, Minapur, Muzaffarpur Bihar
27 Nagendra Singh Chairperson, Nalanda Bhartiya Kisan Morcha, Biharsharif (Nalanda) Bihar
28 Nitish Kumar World Record Grower Potato, Darveshpura, Nalanda Bihar
29 Pankaj Bhushan Tara Foundation Bihar
30 Parshuram Ojha Sriram Krishak Club, Koilwar, Ara Bihar
31 Prakash Bablu GM Free Bihar Movement, Patna Bihar
32 Dr. R.K.P.Singh ICRA, Patna Bihar
33 Dr. Ram Mohan Singh Doctor, Patna Bihar
34 Dr. Ramadhar Former IAS & Chairperson Bihar farmer Commission, Patna Bihar
35 Ramayan Singh Kisan Cell, Samajvaadi Janta Party, Siwan Bihar
36 Ramesh Kumar Chairman,GPSVS, Madhubani Bihar
37 Rampal Agrawal Nutan Rashtriya Goshala Sangathan Patna Bihar
38 Ravi Kamal Nikhil Rural Development Society, Patna Bihar
39 Rocky Kumar Sodhi Shere Bihar Organic Farmer Group Biharsharif, Nalanda Bihar
40 Dr. S.N.Rai M.S., Muzaffarpur Bihar
41 Dr. Shree Ram Padmadeo Tara Foundation, Patna Bihar
42 Srinivas Chaari Convener, Bihar Suchna Adhikar Manch, Patna Bihar
43 Sumanth Kumar World Record Grower, Paddy, Darveshpura, Nalanda Bihar
44 Suresh gupta Member, State Wild Life Board, Muzaffarpur Bihar
45 Suresh Singh General Secretary, Kisan Prakoshth Bihar, Patna Bihar
46 Surya Narain Singh Farmer’s Club, Aurangabaad Bihar
47 Vidya Bhushan Singh Harit Swaraj, Gopalganj Bihar
48 Vijay Kumar Gandhi Seva Ashram Jalalpur, Saran Bihar
49 Jacob Nellithanam Richharia Campaign Chhattisgarh
50 Ajay Mahajan VIVIDHARA Delhi
51 Gopal Krishna ToxicsWatch Alliance (TWA) Delhi
52 Jaya Iyer Vividhara and KHANA ( khadhya Nyaya Abhiyan), New Delhi Delhi
53 Krishan Bir Chaudhary President, Bharatiya Krishak Samaj, New Delhi Delhi
54 Nishank Secretariat Coordinator, Alliance For Sustainable and Holistic Agriculture (ASHA) Delhi
55 Rachna Arora Creator – Public Awareness on Genetically Modified Food Delhi
56 Renu Singh Secretariat Coordinator, Coalition for a GM Free India Delhi
57 Shalini Bhutani Legal Researcher Delhi
58 Shalini Bhutani Independent Legal Expert Delhi
59 Suresh Nautiyal Convener, Himalayan Peoples Forum Delhi
60 Suresh Nautiyal Board Member, Democracy International Delhi
61 Dr. Vandana Shiva Navdanya/Research Foundation for Science Technology & Ecology, New Delhi Delhi
62 Vijay Pratap Convenor, SADED Delhi
63 Abhijit Prabhudesai Organic Farmer Goa
64 Anand Mazagaenkar Co-ordinator, Paryavaran Suraksha Samiti, Vadodara Gujarat
65 Ashok Bhargav Development Activist Gujarat
66 Dr. B.D.Damore Vice President, Indian National Congress Tribal Wing Gujarat
67 Babubhai Vaghela Secretary, Gujarat Kheti Vikas Parishad, Ahmedabad Gujarat
68 Badribhai Joshi Secretary, Gujarat Khedut Samaj, Tanachha Gujarat
69 Bharat Jambhuha Co-ordinator, People’s Learning Centre-Utthan, Bhavanagar Gujarat
70 Dr. Bharat Shah Trustee, Sarvodaya Parivar Trust, Dharampur, Ahmedabad Gujarat
71 Bhikhu Vyas Trustee, Vanpath Trust Gujarat
72 Chunibhai Vaidya President, Gujarat Lok Samiti Gujarat
73 Dhiru Mistry Secretary, People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL), Vadodara Gujarat
74 Ganpatbhai Gamit President, Gram Seva Samaj, Vyara Gujarat
75 Harshit Rughani Coordinator, Porbander Swimmers Club Gujarat
76 Ilaben Pathak President, Awaz, Ahmedabad Gujarat
77 Indukumar Jani Editor, Nayamarga, Ahmedabad Gujarat
78 Jagdish Shah Managing Trustee, Shivambu Chikitsa Sanshodhan Mandal Gujarat
79 Jagrut Gadit Volunteer, Vadodara Organic Consuner Group Gujarat
80 Kapil Mandawewala Sajeev Fresh, Organic Farmer, Jamnagar Gujarat
81 Kapil Shah Director, Jatan Trust – A Mission For Organic Farming, Vadodara Gujarat
82 Krishnakant Co-ordinator, Mithivirdi Anumukti Andolan Gujarat
83 Lalsing Parghi Sectretary , Bharatiya Adiwasi Sangamam(Westzone) Gujarat
84 Dr. Lataben Medical Professional Gujarat
85 Magandhai Patel President, Bharatiya Kisan Sangh(Gujarat Pradesh),Gandhinagar Gujarat
86 Mahendra Jethmalani Director, Patheya, Ahmedabad Gujarat
87 Mahesh Pandya Chairman, Paryavaran Mitra, Ahmedabad Gujarat
88 Manoj Solanki Trustee, Ramkrishna Trust, Kutch Gujarat
89 Manshukhbhai Suvagiya President, Jalkranti Trust, Rajkot Gujarat
90 Narayanbhai Desai President , Sampoorn Kranti Vidyalaya Vedachhee Gujarat
91 Neeta Hardikar Executive Director, Anandi, Devgadh Bariya Gujarat
92 Prafulbhai Senjahiga President, Mahagujrat Agri Cotton Company Ltd. Gujarat
93 Purvi Vyas Organic Farmer Gujarat
94 Rajni Dave Editor, Bhoomiputra, Vadodara Gujarat
95 Ramesh Sangavi President, Gram Swaraj Sangh, Kutch Gujarat
96 Rohit Prajapati Co-ordinator, Vadodara Kamdar Union, Vadodara Gujarat
97 Sanjay Dave Director, Charakha, Ahmedabad Gujarat
98 Sarvadaman Patel President, Organic Farming Association of India Gujarat
99 Shripal Shah Director, Asal, Ahmedabad Gujarat
100 Dr. Suren-Uma Gadekar Co-ordinator, Anoomukti Andolan Gujarat
101 Trupti Shah Trustee, Sahiyar Stree Sangathan, Vadodara Gujarat
102 Dr. Varsha Shah Managing Trustee, Koshish Milap Trust, Vadodara Gujarat
103 Vijay Shah Vice President, Satvik Promoting Ecological Agriculture Gujarat
104 Vinay-Charul Directors, Sandarbh Studies, Ahmedabad Gujarat
105 Yatri Baxi Co-ordinator, Paryavaran Santri, Ahmedabad Gujarat
106 Sunder Lal SCRIA, Khori Haryana
107 Siddharth Jaiswal Organic Farming Trainer, Ranchi Jharkhand
108 Maj Gen (Retd). S.G. Vombatkere Mysore Karnataka
109 Abhilash G.S. — Karnataka
110 Arvind Das Deccan Herald, Bangalore Karnataka
111 Arvind Shivakumar Greenpeace India, Bangalore Karnataka
112 Channabasappa Kombli President, Desi Cotton Growers Association, Haveri Karnataka
113 Deepa P.Gopinath Bangalore Karnataka
114 Dhanaraj Keezhara Painter and Artist, Bangalore Karnataka
115 Dr. Ashok Kundapur Environment & Energy Activist, Udupi Karnataka
116 G.Krishna Prasad Director, Sahaja Samrudha Organic Producer Company Ltd., Bangalore Karnataka
117 Haridevan A.V. Consultant, Greenpeace India, Bangalore Karnataka
118 Jaganmohan Rao Vangapelly Greenpeace India, Bangalore Karnataka
119 K. Anand Volunteer, Junglescapes Karnataka
120 Kavitha Kuruganti Alliance For Sustainable and Holistic Agriculture (ASHA) Karnataka
121 Neha Saigal Greenpeace India, Bangalore Karnataka
122 Pandurang Hegde Chipko-Appiko Movement, Sirsi Karnataka
123 R.Guruswamy Secretary. Kollegala Organic Farmers Association, Kollegala, Chamarajnagar Dist. Karnataka
124 Rajesh Krishnan Greenpeace India, Bangalore Karnataka
125 Shivayogi Makari Secretary, Desi Krushikara Balaga, Haveri Karnataka
126 — KABANI, The Other Direction, Wayanad Kerala
127 Ashok Kumar Secretary, Nalla Bakshana Prasthanam, Malappuram Kerala
128 Badusha N. Chairman, Wayanad Environmental Protection Committee, Wayanad Kerala
129 Biju Swadeshi Jagran Manch, Kochi Kerala
130 Catherine Lee Social Activist, Statue, Trivandrum Kerala
131 Chadrasekharan Nair Kerala Farmers Internet Forum, Trivandrum Kerala
132 Hariharan Farmer, Secretary, Kissan Jyothi Farmers Club Kerala
133 Jishnu Kumarakom Nature Club, Kottayam Kerala
134 Purushan Eloor Chairman, Periyar Malineekarana Virudha Samithi, Kochi Kerala
135 Robin Editor, Keraleeyam Fortnightly, Thrissur Kerala
136 Sreeja Aarangottukara Krishi Pata Shala, Aarangottukara, Thrissur Kerala
137 Sudheerkumar Kasaragod Environmental Protection Committee, Kasargod Kerala
138 Abdul Rahman C. P. Farmer, Jaiva Karshaka Samithi, Calicut Kerala
139 Abhilash G.S. Software Business, Trivandrum Kerala
140 Ajayan R. Plachimada Support Group, Trivandrum Kerala
141 Ambrose The Lumiere, Organic Hotel, Kochi Kerala
142 Anil Alter Media, Thrissur Kerala
143 Babychen President, Organic Bazaar, Trivandrum Kerala
144 C. K. Sujithkumar CEDAR, Thrissur Kerala
145 C. R. Neelakantan Writer and Environmentalist Kerala
146 Dr. Deepa P. Gopinath Lecturer, College of Engineering Thiruvananthapuram Kerala
147 Deepa V. S. Lecturer, College of Engineering Karunagappalli Kerala
148 E .S. Jayachandran Asst Professor, Model Engineering College, Kochi Kerala
149 Eldo Pachilakkadan Architect, BIRDS, Trivandrum Kerala
150 Geo Jose National Alliance for People’s Movement (NAPM), Kochi Kerala
151 Guruvayurappan Wildlife Preservation Society of India, Palakkad Kerala
152 Harikumar Sound Engineer, National Award Winner-2010 Kerala
153 Harish Vasudevan State Secretary, Jaiva Karshaka Samithi Kerala
154 Hussain Principal, Salsabeel School, Thrissur Kerala
155 Illias Secretary, One Earth One Life Kerala
156 Indinoor Gopi Convener, Bharathapuzha Samrakshana Samithi, Palakkad Kerala
157 J. Prasant Palakkappillil Principal, Sacred Heart College, Thevara Kerala
158 Jacob Lazer PUCL, Kochi Kerala
159 Jacon Vadakkenchery Nature Life Hospitals, Cochin Kerala
160 Jose Kerala Social Service Forum, Wyanad Kerala
161 Adv. Joseph Pillip Ecological Society of Kerala, Changancherry Kerala
162 Dr. K. C. Radhakrishnan Gandhiyan Prakruthi Chikitsa Kendram, Tirur, Malappuram Kerala
163 K. V. Dayal Chairman, Jaiva Karshaka Samithi Kerala
164 Krishna Kumar K. — Kerala
165 Dr. Lalitha Vijayan Sálim Ali Foundation, Thrissur Kerala
166 Latha A. Director, River Research Centre, Thrissur Kerala
167 M. A. Johnson Darsana Samskarika Vedi, Kolandithazham, Kozhikode Kerala
168 M. A. Rahman Professor in English and Film Maker, Kasargod Kerala
169 Dr. M.C. George Advocate, INFAM(IndianFarmersMovement) National Trustee Kerala
170 Mercy Alexander Director, SAKHI Womens Resource Centre, Trivandrum Kerala
171 Sri Mullakara Rathnakaran MLA, Ex-Minister for Agriculture Kerala
172 N. K. Sukumaran Nair Pampa Pari Rakshana Samithi, Thiruvalla Kerala
173 Nalini Nayak Self Employed Womens Association (SEWA) Kerala
174 O. V. Usha Poet and Writer, Trivandrum Kerala
175 Omana P. K. RASTA, Wayanad Kerala
176 P. Jayaprakash Coordinator, Prakrithi Padana Kendram, Nilambur Kerala
177 Pandiode Prabhakaran Secretary, Desiya Karshaka Samrakshana Samithi, Palakkad Kerala
178 Adv. Pouran Chairman, People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL-Kerala) Kerala
179 Adv. Pradeepkumar Haritha Sena Farmers Organisation Kerala
180 Renjan Mathew Varghese Director, WWF-India, Kerala Chapter Kerala
181 Resalayyan V. Action Council, Vellarada, Trivandrum Kerala
182 Rony Joseph INFACT, Pala Kerala
183 S. Santhi Freelance Ecologist, Trivandrum Kerala
184 Sabeena Manager, Zero Waste Centre, Kovalam Kerala
185 Shibu K. Nair Programme Director, Thanal Kerala
186 Dr. Sreekumar Kottayam Nature Society, Kottayam Kerala
187 Sridhar Radhakrishnan Thanal Kerala
188 Sri Sudhakaran Nair Secretary, Boomithra Charitable Society, Chadayamangalam Kerala
189 Smt. Sugathakumari Padmasri Awardee and Poet and Environmentalist Kerala
190 T. P. Padmanabhan Director, Society for Environment Education in Keraka (SEEK), Kannur Kerala
191 T. Peter Kerala Swathantra Matsya Thozhilali Federation Kerala
192 Usha S. Save Our Rice Campaign Kerala
193 Dr. V. S. Vijayan Chairman, Salim Ali Foundation and Ex-Chairman, Kerala State Biodiversity Board Kerala
194 Varghese Thoduparambil Karshaka Munnettam, Thrissur Kerala
195 — Beej Swaraj Abhiyan, Bhopal Madhya Pradesh
196 — Hamara Beej Abhiyan , Bhopal Madhya Pradesh
197 — Bhojan Ka Adhikar Abhiyan, Bhopal Madhya Pradesh
198 — Dalit Aadiwasi Mahapanchayat, Bundelkhand Madhya Pradesh
199 — Bhartiya Kisan Sangh, Rewa Madhya Pradesh
200 — Narmada Bachao Aandolan, Badwani Madhya Pradesh
201 — Aadiwasi Mukti Sangathan, Sendhva Madhya Pradesh
202 — Kisan Sangharsh Samiti, Betul Madhya Pradesh
203 — Bargi Bandh Visthapan Morcha Madhya Pradesh
204 Aruna Rodrigues Lead Petitioner, SC PIL, Mhow Madhya Pradesh
205 Dinesh Kothari President, Society for Nature Education & Habitatats, Indore Madhya Pradesh
206 Nilesh Desai Sampark, Jhabua Madhya Pradesh
207 Aarti Pakharaj Center for Sustainable Agriculture (CSA) Maharashtra
208 Aneel Hegde Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS) Maharashtra
209 Ashish Kothari Kalpvriksh, Pune Maharashtra
210 Chaitanya Kalve Green Current-The Organic Shop, Mumbai Maharashtra
211 Datta Patil YUVA Maharashtra
212 Dilnavaz Variava LEAF Initiative, Mumbai Maharashtra
213 Girish Wadhwani Organic Bazaar Partner, Pune Maharashtra
214 Kavita Mukhi The Farmers’ Market (TFM), Mumbai Maharashtra
215 Krishna Srinivasan Director Law & Advocacy – Econet, Pune Maharashtra
216 Mahrukh Bulsara Ecomantra, Mumbai Maharashtra
217 Meghna Patel Concerned Citizen, Mumbai Maharashtra
218 Narayansingh B. Bhandari Classic Marble, Thane Maharashtra
219 Neesha Noronha Mumbai Organic Farmers and Consumers Association (MOFCA) Maharashtra
220 Nitya Ghotge Anthra, Pune Maharashtra
221 Rama Bishnoi Quasar Associates, Mumbai Maharashtra
222 Sangita Sharma RAYS of HOPE, Thane Maharashtra
223 Saroj Datar Jankidevi Bajaj Institute Of Management, Mumbai Maharashtra
224 Sheela Wadhwani Organic Bazaar Partner, Mumbai Maharashtra
225 Sreedevi Lakshmi Kutty Urban Leaves, Mumbai/Den Haag Maharashtra
226 Tejal Visweshwar GM Free Maharashtra Maharashtra
227 Ujjwala A Pendse Dr. M.L. Dhawale Memorial Trust, Mumbai / Vikramgad Maharashtra
228 Vasudha Sardar Managing Trustee, Nav Nirman Nyas, Pune Maharashtra
229 Vishweshwar Madhav Nurturing Grounds, Mumbai Maharashtra
230 Bharat Mansata Founder-Member, Vanvadi Agro-ecological Regeneration Association(VARA) Maharashtra
231 Geeta Jhamb Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment, Mumbai Maharashtra
232 Dr. Nandita Shah SHARAN, Mumbai Maharashtra
233 Phiroza Tafti The INTACH Convener, Dahanu Chapter Maharashtra
234 Rina Kamath GM Free Maharashtra, Mumbai Maharashtra
235 Shreesh Ponkshe Organic Farmer, Raigad District Maharashtra
236 Suma Josson Film Maker, Mumbai Maharashtra
237 Vasant Futane Trustee, SANVAD, Vidharbha Maharashtra
238 Vipul Sanghavi Mumbai Maharashtra
239 Arunima Swain Organisation for Rural Reconstruction & Integrated Social Service Activities (ORRISSA), Bhubaneshwar Orissa
240 Binayak swain BATNET Orissa
241 Debjeet Sarangi Living Farms Orissa
242 Jagadish pradhan Sahabhagi Vikash Abhiyan Orissa
243 Sankara Narayanan Budheswary Colony, Bhubaneshwar Orissa
244 Saroj Mohanty Western Orissa Farmers Union Orissa
245 Dr. A. S. Mann Association for Scientific Research in Homeopathy, Sangrur Punjab

246 Adv. A.P.S. Shergill Coalition for Social Engineering Punjab

247 Amanjot Kaur Women Action for Ecology Punjab

248 Anil Bharati Pollution Free India Project Intellectual Forum, Patiala Punjab

249 Dr. Arun Mittra Indian Doctors for Peace & Development , Punjanb, Ludhiana Punjab

250 Arvind Rana Cancer-Free World Foundation , Chandigarh Punjab

251 Ashok Garg Grahak Panchayat, Bathinda Punjab

252 Prof. Ashok Kumar Sapolia Mansa Environment Society Punjab

253 Ashwani Kumar Sadvichar Jagriti Sewa Trust , Ludhiana Punjab

254 B. S. Chowdery Social Welfare Society Trust , Abohar Punjab

255 Prof. Bagga Singh State President , Association For Democratic Rights Punjab

256 Bakhsish Singh Pensioner’s Association Barnala Punjab

257 Dr. Balbir Singh Health & Environment Society Patiala Punjab

258 Dr. Balbir Singh Dhart Suhavi, Jalandhar Punjab

259 Balbir Singh Billing Bhaichara Kisan Sangthan, Patiala Punjab

260 Baljinder Singh Border Area Vikas Committee , Fazilka Punjab

261 Baljit Singh Sahibzada Ajit Singh Sewa Dal , Faridkot Punjab

262 Bharat Bir Singh Sobti Haribhari National Environment Protection Society, Ludhiana Punjab

263 Bhupinder Singh Mann Youth Clubs Association, Bathinda Punjab

264 D.S. Kohli Amritsar Vikas Manch Punjab

265 Dr. Daler Singh Society for Sustainable Development , Ludhiana Punjab

266 Darshan Singh Youth Foundation, Kharar Punjab

267 Deepak Babbar Mission Aagaaz, Amritsar Punjab

268 Des Raj Jindal Human Rights Forum Barnala Punjab

269 Devinder Singh Gill RTI Awareness Forum , Moga Punjab

270 Capt. Dharam Singh Gill Sunehara Bharat , Faridkot Punjab

271 Diwan Chand Streamline Welfare Society, Ferozepur Punjab

272 Dr. G.P.I. Singh Vice Chancellor, Adesh University, Bathinda Punjab

273 Gurbhej Singh Jago Party, Amritsar Punjab

274 Gurhakam Singh Scientific Awareness and Social Welfare Forum, Sangrur Punjab

275 Gurjit Singh Dhillon Shaheed Bhagat Singh Youth Club Dhugga Punjab

276 Gurmail Singh Muktsar Vatavaran Sath, Muktsar Punjab

277 Gurmeet Palahi Phagwara Environment Association, Phagwara Punjab

278 Dr. Gurnam Singh Patnjali Yog Samiti , Ferozepur Cantt Punjab

279 Gurpreet Chandbaja Bhai Khaniya Cancer Roko Society Faridkot Punjab

280 Gyani Kewal Singh Maharani Jind Kaur Trust, Punjab

281 Hamir Singh Internationalist Democratic Party Punjab

282 Harajinder Sandhu Nature Care Society, Harike Punjab

283 Harish Monga NGO Cordination Committee Ferozepur Punjab

284 Dr. Harjinder Walia Global Punjab Foundation, Patiala Punjab

285 Harjot Bains United Youth Organization, Ludhiana Punjab

286 Dr. Harminder Sidhu Gadri Baba Dulla Singh Gyani Nihal Singh Foundation, Ludhiana Punjab

287 Hemant Goswami Burning Brain Society Punjab

288 Iqbal Singh Fiddewala Vatavaran Sabmhal Samaj Sewa Sanstha , Fidde Kalan Punjab

289 Dr. Jagdish Pappra Malwa Hek Foundation , Lehragaga Punjab

290 Jagdish Singla Engineers’ Club Barnala Punjab

291 Jagmohan Singh Lok Kalyan Samiti, Amritsar Punjab

292 Prof. Jagmohan Singh Shaheed Bhagat Singh Birth Centenary Foundation, Ludhiana Punjab

293 Jagsir Singh Bhangar Sant S Pratap Singh Memorial Youth Club , Bhangar( Ferozepur) Punjab

294 Jasvir Singh Grewal Youth Clubs Organization, Bathinda Punjab

295 Jaswinder Singh Brar Gangsar Sports Club , Jaitu Punjab

296 Jatinderpreet Media Artists, Ludhiana Punjab

297 Kamal Anand People For Transparency, Sangrur Punjab

298 Kamal Sharma Bhola Patanjali Yog Samiti , Barnala Punjab

299 Kanwaljeet Dhindsa Society for Education and Awareness in Backward Area, Lehragaga Punjab

300 Karamjeet Singh Sran Society for Environment & Ecological Resources, Faridkot Punjab

301 Krishan Chand Sharma Patanjali Yoga Samiti Hoshiarpur Punjab

302 Krishan Singla Lok Chetna Sabha, Fairdkot Punjab

303 Kultar Singh Sandhwan Director, Gyani Zail Singh Center for Rural Development, Faridkot Punjab

304 Kulwant Singh Lehri Prof Mohan Singh Foundation , Ludhiana Punjab

305 Dr. Lakhbir Singh Pehal, Jalandhar Punjab

306 Ludher Ram Nagar Sudhaar Sabha Mansa Punjab

307 Madan Lal Vatawaran Panchayat , VPO Bulhowal , District Hoshiarpur Punjab

308 Mahant Varinder Singh FAPRO Kang Mai, Hoshiarpur Punjab

309 Mahendra Kumar Jain Atam Jeevan Kalyan Mandal, Ropar Punjab

310 Malwinder Singh Malli Punjab Manch , Chandigarh Punjab

311 Dr. Maneel Grover Mohan Nagar SDSG Foundation, Mohali Punjab

312 Manmohan Sharma Director, Voluntary Health Association of Punjab (VHAP), Chandigarh Punjab

313 Manoj Sharma Bhoomi, Hoshiarpur Punjab

314 Naresh Birla Cancer Roko Jagriti Manch , Mansa Punjab

315 Dr. Neelam Sodhi Aashirvaad Trust Punjab

316 Neeraj Atri Citizens’ Voice , Chandigarh Punjab

317 Dr. Nirmal Singh Punjabi Sath, jalandhar Punjab

318 Nirmal Singh Bilaspuri Kudrati Somye Sambhal Sanstha , Moga Punjab

319 P.P.S. Dhillon RTI Awareness Forum Moga Punjab

320 Parkash Singh Bhatti Khudaai Khidmatgaar, Amritsar Punjab

321 Parminder Singh Gill Sewa Punjab, Moga Punjab

322 Parveen Kala Sahara Club Faridkot Punjab

323 Parvinder Singh Kittna Human Empowerment League Of Punjab (Help) Punjab

324 Dr. Pavittar Singh Sarv Sewa Society , Nawanshahar Punjab

325 Pirthipal Singh Dhillon All India Food Processors Association , Punjab Chapter Moga Punjab

326 Poonam Singh Preetlarhi Trust , Preet Nagar , Amritsar Punjab

327 Prabhdial Singh Randhawa Amritsar Pollution Control Committee Punjab

328 Prem Saini Gyan Punj Educational Society Punjab

329 Prithpal Singh Baba Farid Center for Special Children Punjab

330 Promila Kamal Param Vaibhav; Principal, Police DAV Public School, Amritsar Punjab

331 Adv. Purushottam Betab Kotkapura Consumers’ Association Punjab

332 Dr. R. K. Mahajan Swami Vivekanand Study Circle Bathinda Punjab

333 R. K. Kaplash Chairman, Consumer Association , Chandigarh Punjab

334 Dr. R. P. S. Aulakh Bhartiya Jan Gyan Vigyan Jatha, Ludhiana Punjab

335 Maj. R.P.S. Malhotra India Against Corruption, Patiala Punjab

336 Raj Pal Sharma Vyapar Mandal Barnala Punjab

337 Rajdeep Dhaliwal Green Earth Patiala Punjab

338 Rakesh Jain Bhagwan Mahavir Jain Chetna Sabha, Ludhiana Punjab

339 Rakesh Kad Patiala Our Pride Punjab

340 Rakesh Narula Bathinda Vikas Manch Punjab

341 Rashpal Singh Shubhkarman Society, Hoshiarpur Punjab

342 Ravneet Pal Singh Eco Sikh Organization, Ludhiana Punjab

343 Rozi Sareen Sarva Matrai Foundation , Patiala Punjab

344 Saksham Katyal Jan Saksham Ludhiana Punjab

345 Dr. Sandeep Jain Care for Animals and Protection of Environment, Ludhiana Punjab

346 Sanjay Walia Shaheed Bhagat Singh Club, Muktsar Punjab

347 Sanjeev Marshal Social Welfare Society , Fazilka Punjab

348 Sant Krishnanand Bhai Bhagtu Trust , Bhagtuana , Jaitu Punjab

349 Sarabjeet Singh Human Development Organization , Ludhiana Punjab

350 Capt. Sarabjeet Singh Dhillon Chogirdha Bachaao Committee, Jalandhar Punjab

351 Dr. Satinder Singh Agreed Foundation, Ferozepur Punjab

352 Satnam Singh Manak Punjab Jagriti Manch, Jalandhar Punjab

353 Sewa Singh Chawla Bharat Vikas Parishad , Faridkot Punjab

354 Shakti Singh Boarder Area Sangharsh Committee , Fazilka Punjab

355 Sukhdev Singh Bhopal Nature Human Centre Peoples’ Movement(NHCPM), Punjab Punjab

356 Sukhdevsingh Kokri Kalan Moga Punjab

357 Sukhwinder Singh Kalsi Naujawan Lok Bhalai Sabha , Talwandi Bhai Punjab

358 Sukhwinder Singh Sidhu Environment Awareness Association, Bathinda Punjab

359 Dr. Sunny Sandhu Prem Sena , Tarantaaran Punjab

360 Surinder Chohan Jan Ekta, Chandigarh Punjab

361 Surinder Pal Kaushal Ishwar Asha Memorial Environmental Trust , Barnala Punjab

362 Susheel Moudgill Daanish Foundation Punjab

363 Tarsem Singh Haraj Guru Gobind Singh Sports Club VPO Haraj , Talwandi Bhai Punjab

364 Dr. Tejbir Singh National Coordinator, Social Medicine Association, Amritsar Punjab

365 Thakur Baljinder Singh Panchnad Foundation, Patiala Punjab

366 Dr. Ujagar Singh Mann Senior Citizen Society, Barnala Punjab

367 Ujjal Singh Bhai Ghanayia Charitable Trust Tanda Udmad, District Hoshiarpur Punjab

368 Umendra Dutt Kheti Virasat Mission Punjab

369 Prof. V. C. Nanda Azadi Bachhao Andolan, Chandigarh Punjab

370 Varinder Gupta Vishav Yog Sansthan, Khanna Punjab

371 Veena Sharma Human Right Law Network , Chandigarh Punjab

372 Vikam India Against Corruption Goniana Punjab

373 Vikramjit Singh Self employed & Environmental Activist , Mohali Punjab

374 Vinod Kumar Environment Society Bhikhi Punjab

375 Yashwant Bassi Ropar District Youth Clubs Coordination Committee Punjab

376 A R Sharma Awareness Training and Motivation for Action, Jaipur Rajasthan
377 Abhay Singh Gramin avam Samajik Vikas Sanstha, Ajmer Rajasthan
378 Dr. Alok Vyas CECOEDECON, Jaipur Rajasthan
379 Arun Kumawat Navachar Sanstha Kapasan, Chittorgarh Rajasthan
380 Ashok Mathur Kisaan Morcha, Bikaner Rajasthan
381 Babosa KSS, Jaipur Rajasthan
382 Badri narayan Jaat KSS, Tonk Rajasthan
383 Banshi Bairwa Prayas Kendra Sanstha, Jaipur Rajasthan
384 Bhagirath Chodhary Gramin Swabhiman Sansthan, Nagour Rajasthan
385 Bhagwan Sahay KSS, Jaipur Rajasthan
386 Bhanwar Kanwar KSS, Tonk Rajasthan
387 Bhanwar Lal Choudhary Lok Kalyan Sansthan, Barmer Rajasthan
388 Bhanwarlal Tailor Janvikas Sansthan, Ajmer Rajasthan
389 Bhogi lal KSS, Baran Rajasthan
390 Brijbhushan Sharma Daang Vikas Sansthan, Karauli Rajasthan
391 Brijmohan SARD, Sirohi Rajasthan
392 Chail Bihari Sharma Gram Rajya Vikas Evam Prashikshan Sansthan, Karauli Rajasthan
393 Dinesh Kumar Kaushik Action for Welfare and Awareness In Rural Environment, Ajmer Rajasthan
394 Hanuman Sahay Sharma Sevay Jan Samiti, Jaipur Rajasthan
395 Hari narayan sutrakar KSS, Jaipur Rajasthan
396 Indrarao Saarthi Vikas Sansthan, Churu Rajasthan
397 Kailash Gurjar KSS, Tonk Rajasthan
398 Kaushal/Pratap Lal Meena Harotii Adim Janjati Vikas Simiti, Kota Rajasthan
399 Kedar Prasad Shreemal Gramoday Samajik Sansthan, Jaipur Rajasthan
400 Kedarmal Jat Manav Kalyan Vidhyapeeth Sansthan, Jaipur Rajasthan
401 Laduram Varma Gandhi Vikas Samiti Tamdia, Jaipur Rajasthan
402 Madan Ji KSS, Tonk Rajasthan
403 Mathura Lal KSS, Baran Rajasthan
404 Mohan Meena Shri Kalyan Sewa Sansthan, Tonk Rajasthan
405 Mohd. Usmani Suksm Vigyan Samiti, Nagour Rajasthan
406 Moti Lal Kumawat Grameen Ekta Bal Shiksha Samiti, Jaipur Rajasthan
407 Navratnamal Sain Subhash Yuva Mandal, Tonk Rajasthan
408 Pankaj Kumar Pareek Gramin Vikas Samiti Brijlal Nagar, Tonk Rajasthan
409 Pushkar Joshi Yugantar Sansthan, Udaipur Rajasthan
410 Rajendra Sen Sarthi Sanstha Surajgarh, Jhunjhunu Rajasthan
411 Ram Kishor Prajapat Gramothan Sansthan, Ajmer Rajasthan
412 Rama Kishan Jaat KSS, Jaipur Rajasthan
413 Ramavtar Kumawat Samvedna Sansthan, Jaipur Rajasthan
414 Ramesh Chand Sharma Gyanoday Gramin Vikas Evam Shikshan Prashikshan Sansthan, Sawaimadhopur Rajasthan
415 Ramkumar Bairwa Ugriyawas Jagruti kendra sanstha, Jaipur Rajasthan
416 Ramvilas Kumavat Marwad sewa sansthan, Nagour Rajasthan
417 Sanjay Kumar Jain Sadhana Society, Banswara Rajasthan
418 Santosh Bhargav Award Sansthan, Alwar Rajasthan
419 Shankar lal Gurjar SEVA Sansthan, Tonk Rajasthan
420 Shivji ram Yadav Shiv Shiksha Samiti, Tonk Rajasthan
421 Shyoji Ram Gurjar Sangharsh Sansthan , Jaipur Rajasthan
422 Subhash Purohit Gaurwad Gramin vikas Anusandhan Sansthan, Pali Rajasthan
423 Suleman Shekh Gramin Manav Kalyan Shikshan Sanshtan, Jaipur Rajasthan
424 Suresh chand Sharma Shiv Shakti Navyuvak Mandal Samajik Sanstha, Jaipur Rajasthan
425 Suresh Kumar Saini SAJAG – Society for Awareness through Joing Activities and Guidance, Jaipur Rajasthan
426 Virendra Vidrohi Matsya Mewat Shiksha avam Vikas Sanssthan, Alwar Rajasthan
427 — Malliga Kalnjium Women Farmers Association, Thiruvannamalai Tamil Nadu
428 — Annakili Kalanjium Unorganised Workers Union, Vellore Tamil Nadu
429 — Vetriselvan – Lawers Forum For Human Rights Justice, Chennai Tamil Nadu
430 — Hope, Puducherry Tamil Nadu
431 A.M. Raja President CIFA, Tamil Nadu Chapter, Chennai Tamil Nadu
432 Anantha Sayanan Restore/ Safe Food Alliance, Chennai Tamil Nadu
433 Annapoorni Sankaran Safe Food Aliance, Chennai Tamil Nadu
434 Arul Rathinam Secretary, Pasumai Thaayagam Foundation, Chennai Tamil Nadu
435 Arun President, Dharmapuri Dist. Organic Farmers Association Tamil Nadu
436 Babuji Janakarajan Farmer, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
437 Balaji Shankar Tharchaarbu Iyakkam Tamil Nadu
438 Balasubramanian Thalanmai Organic Farmers Sangam, Madurai Tamil Nadu
439 Bhrathi Thansan Arulagam,Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
440 Boopathi Rajan Social Welfare Trust, Arachalur Tamil Nadu
441 C. Kandasamy President, Vattamalai Odaikkarai Pasan Vivasayegal Sangam, Vellakoil, Tiruppur Dist. Tamil Nadu
442 C. Rathinasamy Thamilaga Vivasayegal Sangam, Erode Tamil Nadu
443 C. Vayapuri President and Former Member of Govt.High level committee; United Farmers Association of Tamil Nadu, Thalaivasal, Salem Dist. Tamil Nadu
444 Chandra Women Education and Economic Development Trust, Redhills, Thiruvallur District Tamil Nadu
445 Cheran President, Cauvery Delta Farmer Organisations Federation, Thiruvarur Dist. Tamil Nadu
446 D.V.Sreedhar Goodnews India Foundation Tamil Nadu
447 Fatma Bernard President, Tamil Nadu Women’s Forum, Arrakonam Tamil Nadu
448 Ganeshamurthi Member of Parliament Tamil Nadu
449 Gomathinayagam President, Vivasaya Seva Samgam, Puliangudi, Thirunelveli Dist. Tamil Nadu
450 Iyal Vagai Environmetal Group, Tiruppur Tamil Nadu
451 Jagannathan Nalla Keerai, Thiuvellore Tamil Nadu
452 Dr. Jeevanantham President Tamilnadu Green Movement, Erode Tamil Nadu
453 Dr. K. Gunathilagaraj Professor of Agricultural Entomology (Rtd), Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
454 K. Jagadeesan Advisor, Federation of Tamil Nadu Rice Mill Owners Association Tamil Nadu
455 Prof. K. K. Krishnamoorthy President-Indian Society for Certification of organic products, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
456 K. Mohan Raj Tamil Nadu Green Movement, Chennai Tamil Nadu
457 K. N. Nagarajan Chennai Tamil Nadu
458 Kalaivani President, Organic Farmers Federation, Erode Dist. Tamil Nadu
459 Kalidasan President, OSAI, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
460 Karpagam Organic Farmer, Point Return, Maduranthagam Tamil Nadu
461 Kazini Global Environment Managers, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
462 Kongu Kolandaisamy President, Horticultural Farmers Association Tamil Nadu
463 Krishnakumar President, Bharat Kisan Sangh Organic farming Wing, Gobichettipalayam Tamil Nadu
464 Kuppusamy President, Organic Farmers Association, Kullathur Region, Salem Dist. Tamil Nadu
465 KVRK Thirunaranan Founder, The Nature Trust, Chennai Tamil Nadu
466 M. David Amalanadane Pharmacist, ONGC, Karaikal Tamil Nadu
467 Makkal Thamilagam Coordinator, Padam Narayan, Chennai Tamil Nadu
468 Mohan and Devika Advocates, Chennai Tamil Nadu
469 N.S.Palanisamy President, Ex.MLA-Non Political Tamilnadu Vivsayegal Sangam, Tiruppur Tamil Nadu
470 Nallasamy President, Federation of Tamil Nadu Farmers Association, Erode Tamil Nadu
471 Dr. Nammalvar Organisation Indian Organic Farmers Movement Tamil Nadu
472 O.V.Saravanakumar Organiser, Salem Tamil Nadu
473 Pamara Theepam N. Parthipan Iyarkai Nala Vazhvhu Sangam, Mutthur Tamil Nadu
474 Pamayan Thaalanmai Uzhavar Iyakam Tamil Nadu
475 Piyush President, Speak Out Salem, Salem Tamil Nadu
476 Podaran Tamil Nadu Iyarkai Vazhvurimai Sangam, Kangeyam Tamil Nadu
477 Ponnaiyan President-Tamilnadu Tharsarbu Vivasayegal Sangam, Erode Tamil Nadu
478 Dr. Ponnammal Natarajan Retd. Dean, Anna University Tamil Nadu
479 Ramaswamy Selvam State Coordinator, Tamil Nadu Organic Farmers Federation Tamil Nadu
480 Radhika Rammohan Restore Health Livelihoods and Nature, Chennai Tamil Nadu
481 Raja Chidambaram Perambalur, President of Thamilaga Vivasayegal Sangam, Trichyi Tamil Nadu
482 Ram Mohan Hind Mazdor Kisan Panchayat, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
483 Ramasubramanian Samanvaya Consulting, Chennai Tamil Nadu
484 Ravi President, Care and Love Trust, Erode Tamil Nadu
485 Ravi Sivanandan Friends of Sahtyamangalam Forest, Erode Tamil Nadu
486 Rayyan East Coast Research and Development Organisation, Thoothukkudi Tamil Nadu
487 Sadagopan President, Tamilnadu Vivasayegal Valvurimai Sangam, Chengi Tamil Nadu
488 Dr. Sakthivel President, Care Trust, Erode Tamil Nadu
489 Sakthivel Organic Farmer, Thalavadi Tamil Nadu
490 Sangeetha Sriram Restore Gardens, Chennai Tamil Nadu
491 Shankara Narayanan Thanner Thalam, Kodumudi Tamil Nadu
492 Sheelu President, Women’s Collective, Chennai Tamil Nadu
493 Sundaram R. Humanist Party Member, Salem Tamil Nadu
494 Sundari TamilNadu Resource Team, Chennai Tamil Nadu
495 Sunder Rajan Poovulagin Nanbargal, Chennai Tamil Nadu
496 Sundra Rajan Lawyers for Environmental Justice, Chennai Tamil Nadu
497 T. Sakthivel President, SEWA, Erode Tamil Nadu
498 Thirumalai Nalla Sandhai, Thiruvellore Tamil Nadu
499 Valukkuparai Balasubramanian President, Vivasayegal Sangam, Pollachi Tamil Nadu
500 Vellian President, Tamilnadu Vanigar Peravai, Chennai Tamil Nadu
501 Vengateshwarn Zone President of CII (Zone comprising of Salem, Erode, Dharmapuri, etc.) Tamil Nadu
502 Viswanathan Tree Growers Association, Erode Tamil Nadu
503 Dr. Debal Deb. Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies, Kolkata West Bengal
504 Raj Krishna Mukherjee Development Research Communication and Services Centre(DRCSC), Kolkata West Bengal
505 Vinita Mansata Earthcare Books West Bengal
506 — Breakthrough Science Society, Kolkata West Bengal
507 — Save Our rice Campaign, West Bengal West Bengal
508 — Terai Research Society, Jalpaiguri West Bengal
509 — Palash, Purulia West Bengal
510 — Swanirvar, North 24 Parganas West Bengal
511 — Bagnan Gramin Mahila Sanmilan, Howrah West Bengal
512 — Dhanchabari Sister Nivedita Smriti Sangha (DSNSS), Purba Medinipur West Bengal
513 — Champa Mahila Society (CMS), South 24 Parganas West Bengal
514 — Indraprastha Srijan Welfare Society (ISWS), South 24 Parganas West Bengal
Extracts from “Bt cotton: Questions & Answers” by Dr K R Kranthi, Director of Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR, Nagpur) published by Indian Society for Cotton Improvement, 2012

32. Is the increase in yield because of Bt cotton alone?

Though GM Bt cotton technology has brought down pesticide use by about 50 per cent, it is not correct to assume that cotton yields in India doubled only because of Bt cotton.

Bt cotton was introduced in 2002 primarily for bollworm control. Subsequently, there has been a significant leap in the cotton production. During 2001 India produced about 158 lakh bales, which increased to 243 lakh bales in 2004 and 345 lakh bales by 2011. However, it is interesting to note that the yield increase by 2004 was mainly due to the IPM/IRM strategies, new insecticides, new hybrids, new area in Gujarat, apart from the 5.4% area under Bt cotton. The area under non-Bt straight varieties was about 55.0% in 2004 and non-Bt hybrids at 38.0%. Cotton Advisory Board data show that cotton yields increased by about 60 per cent in three years between 2002 and 2004 when the area under Bt cotton was a meager 5.6 per cent and the area under non-Bt cotton was 94.4 per cent. The yields did not increase significantly more than the pre-Bt era even until 2011 when the Bt cotton area touched 96 per cent.

The area under irrigation increased mainly in Gujarat after the year 2000 especially in the form of check-dams in the Saurashtra belt which had new areas of about 8-9 lakh hectares under cotton. Currently about one-third of India‟s production is derived from the state which has one-fourth of the cotton area. Clearly, apart from the contribution of Bt cotton, the increase in yield may have also been due to other major changes in the past 8 years. Some perceptible changes include, implementation on IPM and IRM on a large scale by the Ministry of Agriculture and ICAR, the introduction of some excellent cotton hybrids, increase in cotton area in Gujarat from 15 lakh ha to 26 lakh ha, increase in check dams and drip irrigation systems, increase in hybrid cotton area from 40% to 90% and introduction of 6-7 new effective insecticide molecules for bollworm control and sucking pest management.

45. Have bollworm populations declined because of Bt cotton?

Interestingly, H. armigera infestation reduced significantly in cotton ecosystems from 2000, to the point of effective non-existence in some parts of India. It is not clear whether it was the introduction of Bt-cotton or the change in insecticide use pattern in Asia, notably the decrease in pyrethroids, coupled with increase in the new chemistries which impose fitness problems in residual surviving populations, which caused the change, but H. armigera populations rarely exceeded economic threshold levels in Asia, particularly in majority of the cotton growing regions of India. It is now being increasingly felt that bollworm infestations declined significantly over the past 12 years mainly because of a significant decline in the use of the insecticide “synthetic-pyrethroid” coupled with enhanced usage of some potent bollworm-controlling insecticides such as Spinosad, Emamectin and Indoxacarb, which were introduced during 2000-2001. Bt cotton has also played a part in the decline of bollworm populations.

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